Khartoum – Here is a recap of events in Sudan since autocratic president Omar al-Bashir was toppled over two years ago:
2019: Bashir ousted
On April 11, 2019, four months after mass protests sparked by a hike in bread prices spiral into demands for wholesale reform, Sudan’s army removes Bashir from power.
He is replaced by a transitional military government.
Thousands camp in front of army headquarters demanding civilian rule.
Talks between the generals and protest leaders break down.
Armed men move in on the protest camp on June 3 and dozens are killed in a days-long crackdown.
A feared paramilitary group that sprang from the notorious Janjaweed militia, accused of war crimes in the 2003 Darfur conflict, is blamed for the violence, but rejects allegations it was involved.
After the African Union intervenes, civilian and military factions agree to share power in a three-year transition to full civilian rule.
On August 17, a “constitutional declaration” is signed and a sovereign council comprised of leading military and civilian figures is formed three days later.
In October, the government and rebel groups who had fought Bashir’s iron-fisted rule for decades agree to a “permanent ceasefire” in the country’s three war zones.
On December 14, Bashir is convicted of corruption and sentenced to two years in a correctional centre.
The toppled autocrat has long been wanted by the International Criminal Court (ICC) in The Hague over charges of genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity in the 2003 Darfur conflict in which 300,000 people were killed.
A Khartoum prosecutor rejects extradition as not “necessary”.
2020: Unrest spreads
Hamdok survives an assassination attempt on March 9, 2020, which many see as a bid to derail the transition.
Inflation skyrockets in April to 99 percent and higher, with food prices soaring after borders are closed to tackle the coronavirus pandemic.
On June 30, street demonstrations reiterate demands for justice for people killed under Bashir and during the protests of recent years.
Bashir tried for coup
Bashir goes on trial in Khartoum on July 21 over the 1989 coup that brought him to power.
The government announces it will devalue the currency in a bid to curb black market activity as it struggles with an “economic emergency”.
In October, Sudan signs a landmark peace deal with an alliance of rebel groups.
Two key groups refuse to sign and tribes in Sudan’s east also oppose the accord, saying it overlooks them.
Also in October, Sudan agrees to normalise ties with Israel, in what is seen as a quid pro quo for the US to remove the country from its State Sponsors of Terrorism list in December.
In November, conflict breaks out in Ethiopia’s northern Tigray region, sending tens of thousands of refugees into Sudan.
The fighting rekindles a decades-old dispute between Sudan and Ethiopia over the fertile border region of Al-Fashaqa. Khartoum sends troops to secure the area.
The two countries are also at odds over the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam, as Sudan — along with Egypt — are both downstream from Ethiopia on the Nile.
2021: Fragile government
Sudan in February announces a new cabinet including seven ministers from ex-rebel groups.
In June, Hamdok warns of fractures within the civilian alliance which spearheaded the anti-Bashir protests.
Protests in eastern Sudan block trade through the key hub of Port Sudan from September into October.
Khartoum announces on September 21 that it has thwarted a coup attempt by civilian and military plotters linked to Bashir’s ousted regime.
Protesters take to the streets in Khartoum from October 16 to demand a military government, ostensibly at the behest of a splinter faction of the main civilian protest bloc.
In response, tens of thousands demonstrate on October 21 in support for the country’s transition to a civilian-led democracy.
On Monday, the information ministry says armed forces detain civilian members of the ruling council and ministers in the government, as well as premier Hamdok, after he refused to support their “coup”.
News of the detentions sparks demonstrations in the capital.
The ministry says internet services have been cut across the country and the main roads and bridges connecting with Khartoum shuttered.
Picture: Getty Images